Some scientists suspect that Vincent van Gogh was autistic, and this painting, Starry Night, is one reason. The swirling and stormy skies you see here (as well as in his other paintings) seem to fit the precise mathematical formula for turbulence known as the Kolmogorov scaling - which was devised 50 years after the painter’s death.
Autistic individuals are known to naturally grasp such concepts in lieu of verbal and social interactions (which van Gogh was known for lacking). So while it’s hardly written in stone, it’s a possibility. It’s also probable that his psychotic episodes, which included hallucinations, allowed him the ability to capture these things naturally.